Pathophysiology of asthma

Pathophysiology of asthma & Important Things About It

Pathophysiology of Asthma is a chronic disease that involves inflammation of passage airway. It may be acute, sub-acute, or chronic, which also causes intermittent airflow obstruction and bronchial hyper-responsiveness.

what is the pathophysiology?

After we have understood what pathophysiology of asthma means. The word Pathophysiology is also essential.

Pathophysiology is the union of physiology and pathology. It means the study of disordered internal physiological processes that cause the malfunction of a body system. It often results mainly from Injury or diseases. But before we proceed to what physiology of asthma is, we need to understand what asthma also means.

Asthma is a chronic lung problem in which the passage airways narrow become inflamed, which leads to wheezing and coughing.

There are two different types of asthma; we have; Intrinsic asthma and Extrinsic asthma.

We will discuss the two main types of asthma below.

a. Intrinsic asthma.
b.Extrinsic asthma.

What is Extrinsic Asthma?

Extrinsic asthma occurs mostly when the immune system overreacts to harmless substances. The substances that are not going to cause any disturbance to the body system. Such material is dust, which makes the body to the release of antibodies called Immunoglobin. The version of Immunoglobin leads to inflammation and asthma symptoms.

It would be best if you also understood that both subtypes of asthma are also called allergic and Non-allergic asthma.

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What is Intrinsic asthma?

It occurs if something other than allergens triggers an immune system response of the body. People are not always able to identify Intrinsic asthma triggers. It could be any trigger like cold, pollution, stress, humidity. We need to know that the above involvement is the main component of asthma. We also need to know some causes of asthma and the best way to prevent it from spreading to the universe. These are the three(3) leading causes of asthma in the body system

  • Inflammation of airways.
  • Airflow obstruction.
  • Bronchial hyper-responsiveness.

For best understanding, we will talk on each leading cause of asthma in the body system.

• Inflammation of airways

How does inflation of airways occur? The inflammation of passage airways consists of Mucosa, Basement membrane, smooth muscle, and fibrocartilaginous tissue. It helps in breathing in and out to release energy. It also helps in the function of metabolic processes through one of the principal cells (T lymphocytes). T lymphocytes regulate airways inflammation through the release of cytokines protein that was damaged. It causes differ diseases to affect passage airways. The chronic inflammation causes an increase in hyper-responsiveness that leads to bronchospasm and symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breathing.

• Airflow obstruction

How does airflow obstruction occur? Airflow obstruction is also a significant component that leads to malfunction of the body system through varieties of change happen in the systems. Such changes like acute bronchoconstriction, airways re-modeling, and plug formation. Now, let talk on acute bronchoconstriction; its effects arrive upon the exposure of immunoglobulin. Immunoglobin E dependent on aeroallergens.

It is complicated because it decreases respiratory flow rates and gives heavy breathing.

• Bronchial Hyper-responsiveness              

From the word Bronchus, which means the two airways, which are the primary Bronchus of the trachea leading directly into the lungs. These two airways are hyper-inflated with the excess distribution of air and lead to ventilation-perfusion mismatch. This mismatch results in hypoxia(a condition in which blood supply is not by adequate oxygen). The bronchial hyper-responsiveness causes respiratory failure through the retention of carbon dioxide as alveolar ventilation decreases.

What is Asthma Exacerbation? Asthma Exacerbation is an acute or sub-acute worsening of asthma. It escalates different stages or components of asthma to worsen stage, which is from inflammation of airways to Bronchial hyper-responsiveness. There are symptoms of exacerbation of asthma. Asthma Exacerbation may have the following symptoms:

a. difficulty while talking.
b. Notice pale or sweaty face.
c. Wheezing when breathing.

Asthma Exacerbation can notice among adults or children. People should know that asthma exacerbation has the same meaning as an asthma attack. In asthma exacerbation, you will find it difficult in breathe.

What is the pathophysiology of asthma?

Pathophysiology of asthma

Pathophysiology of asthma is also commonly described among doctors or physicians as the blockage of the breathing airways. It affects the lungs and leads to another disease of the lung.

What are the types of asthma?

There are different types of asthma; these are as follows :
  • Allergic asthma is a common asthma disease; it occurs through dust, pollen, and pet. It is common among people working in a place that is full of dirt. It gives a sign or maybe notice by some rashes in the body or Fever. To prevent this Allergic asthma, you should use inhaler preventive. 
  • Seasonal asthma: This occurs during a particular year; it could during a raining season or when it cold. Seasonal asthma is also a type of asthma that may occur every-time except in its specific condition.
  • Occupational Asthma: It is also a type of asthma caused directly through the work we do.  Occupational asthma usually noticed when you fill some symptoms when you are working.
  • Exercise-induced Asthma: The pathogenesis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is controversial. The disease mediated by water loss from the airway, heat loss from the airway, or a combination of both. The upper airway is designed to keep inspired air at 100% humidity and body temperature.                 
  • Severe Asthma: It is complex asthma, also known as severe asthma.If a patient notice that using drug or inhalers does not cure its asthma then it is severe asthma.

Reference:  emedicine accessmedicine medicalnewstoday